external image newfoundland.gif "Seek Ye First the Kingdom of God" Newfoundland Coat of Arms.png

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N&L Puffin.png The Puffin N&L Black Spruce Tree.png Black Spruce Tree N&L Pitcher Plant.png Pitcher Plant

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  • Most easterly province made up of Newfoundland (island) and Labrador (mainland).
  • Thousands of small islands are also included.
  • Labrador is larger and is bordered by Quebec.
  • The North Atlantic Ocean is to the east.
  • The island of Newfoundland is surrounded by the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Capital: The capital city and largest city is St. John's.

  • Flower - Pitcher Plant
  • Tree - Black Spruce
  • Bird - Atlantic Puffin
    Motto - "Seek ye first the Kingdom of God"
  • About 508, 410 people live in Newfoundland and Labrador in 2011.
  • Most of the populations live on the island of Newfoundland.
  • People live in fishing villages along the coast and small rural communities.
  • About 60% of the people live in towns and cities.
  • Early settlers mainly came from England, Ireland and Scotland.
  • About 96% are British and Irish, and about 2% are of French descent
  • Aboriginal ancestry include Micmac, Inuit, Innu and M├ętis.
  • In northern Labrador, the climate is subarctic.
  • The Atlantic Ocean affects the climate.
  • Summers are cool and winters are long.
  • There are many storms, fog, strong winds, heavy precipitation and cold temperatures.
  • Newfoundland experiences more fog than any of the other Atlantic Provinces.

  • The first people of Newfoundland were the Beothuk (now extinct) who hunted caribou and fished.
  • For thousands of years, ancestors of the Inuit hunted seal and polar bears along the Labrador coast.
  • Vikings (Norsemen) were the first to visit Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • Five hundred years later in 1497, the explorer John Cabot arrived.
  • He claimed the "new found isle" for the King of England.
  • Fishermen from France, England, Spain and Portugal fished in the waters of the Grand Banks.
  • English, Irish and Scottish settlers built small villages along the coast.
  • In 1949, Newfoundland became a Canada's tenth province.

  • There are many bays and deep fiords along the coastlines.
  • Pack ice and icebergs can be seen off the coastline.
  • Thick forests and many rivers and lakes cover much of the island and south and central Labrador.
  • Torngat Mountains in Labrador are the most spectacular mountains east of the Rockies.
  • Gros Morne National Park (west coast of Newfoundland) has mountains, forests, lakes and sand dunes.
  • Terra Nova National Park (east coast of Newfoundland) consists of rocky cliffs, rolling hills, forests, lakes and ponds.
  • The Continental Shelf off the coast includes shallow areas (banks) and deeper areas (troughs and channels)
  • The Grand Banks are a shallow part of the Continental Shelf (less than 50 meters deep) that lie off the coast of Newfoundland.

  • Exports: oil, fish products, newsprint, iron ore and electricity.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador are part of the Canadian Shield.
  • Mining: Iron ore is produced in Labrador. (Steel is made from iron ore.)
  • Energy: Oil and gas are found under the Grand Banks.
  • Hydroelectricity: Churchill Falls in Labrador is the second largest underground hydroelectric power plant in the world.
  • Fishing: Fishermen catch cod, herring, Atlantic salmon, flounder, turbot, halibut, tuna and haddock as well as lobster, scallops, shrimp, and crab.
    • Overfishing caused a severe decline of fish in the Grand Banks.
    • Fish processing is an important industry.
    • Timber: Forests, mostly coniferous trees, cover one third of Newfoundland.
    • Summers are cool and the growing season is short.
  • In 1901, the Italian inventor Marconi, received the first wireless signal from across the Atlantic Ocean on Signal Hill.
  • The Titanic, a large passenger ship, sank in 1912 after hitting an iceberg south of Newfoundland.
  • A transatlantic telegraph cable was laid on the bottom of the ocean from Ireland to Heart's Content, Newfoundland in 1866.

  • Joey Smallwood - First Premier of Newfoundland, the main force for bringing Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949.
  • Kevin Major - a Canadian children's author lives in St. John's.
  • W. Grenfell - a doctor and missionary in the early 1900s, who visited fishing villages along the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland to care for the sick.

[1] http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/canada/facts/nf.html