Westward Expansion - Interactive Map


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Image Analysis #1


"Across the Continent: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way", Currier & Ives, 1868

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Click on the image to access the modeled lesson.


Image Source: Library of Congress

Source & Citation:

Image Title: “Across the Continent: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way.”Creator(s): Currier & Ives: F. (Fanny) Palmer
Date: 1868
Part Of: “Prints and Photographs Reading Room: Prints and Photographs Division”Library of Congress.Online Resource URL: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.03213/ARC Identifier: 03213


HandoutsGraphic Organizer -
Rubric -

Essential Question: How can we learn about society by examining images from the past?

Topic Questions:

  1. What can we learn about the attitudes of the painter towards the opening of the West in the 1860's?
  2. How does the artist use diagonal lines in this painting? How does this add to our understanding of attitudes toward Native Americans?
  3. What subtle hints can we find in the painting that indicate emotion? How does this image affect you emotionally?
  4. How does the energy of Quad 3 contrast with the image in Quad 2?
  5. How does the artist use the smoke from the train to illustrate the reaction of the Native Americans?

Assignment: Students examine the painting "Across the Continent" from Currier & Ives by Fanny .

Task #1 (45 min period)
  1. Using the iPad, students go to the lesson page on the wikispace.
  2. They examine the image in quadrants, by pinching and squeezing to enhance fine details.
  3. They complete a graphic organizer called "I See (fine details), I Think (the artist's meaning) and I Share (group discussion)
  4. After working independently, the class comes together to discuss the painting, as a whole and in quadrants.
  5. Students complete a personal reflection on their observations in their journals.

Task #2 (45 min period)
  1. Returning to their work, they reread their notes in the graphic organizer and reflections in their journals.
  2. Using the iPad, students take a screenshot of the image from the wikispace page, then edit, crop & enhance it, using the iPad camera functions.
  3. They import the image as a new lesson in the app, Educreations, placing one quadrant on an individual page.
  4. Working from their graphic organizer and their written reflection, students record their thoughts into the Educreations lesson.
  5. Students answer the topic questions.

Task #3 (45 min period)
  1. Students listen to their work on the wikispace.
  2. Students complete a rubric of their work, using criteria discussed at the beginning of the lessons.
  3. Students listen to their peers' work on the wikispace, taking notes on items they want to use next time.
  4. Students write a final reflection in their journals.



Timeline

Date
Summary
Event
26th May 1830
Indian Removal Act
The US Government decreed that the Indian tribes could freely inhabit the Great Plains. A Permanent Indian Frontier was established on the eastern edge of the Great Plains.
Spring 1837
Economic Depression
An economic depression caused the collapse of many banks in the East. People lost their savings, wages fell and unemployment rose.
1839
Nauvoo founded
The Mormons built their 'holy city' in Illinois. They called their city Nauvoo
Spring 1843
Fort Bridger established
Jim Bridger, a former mountain man, built Fort Bridger on the Oregon Trail. Fort Bridger contained a store where travellers could purchase supplies as well as a workshop and forge where wagons could be repaired.
1843
Great Migration
About a thousand people made the journey West to Oregon. This was the highest number of migrants to make the journey west in one year so far and became known as the Great Migration.
27th June 1844
Joseph Smith Killed
Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon religion, and his brother Hyrum were shot and killed while imprisoned for destroying a printing press.
July 1845
Manifest Destiny
John O'Sullivan, editor of the New York newspaper 'The Morning Post', first used this phrase to express the long held belief that white Americans had a God-given right to occupy the entire North American continent.
1846 - 1847
Mormons move to Salt Lake
Following the death of the Mormon leader, Joseph Smith, Brigham Young decided to take the Mormons away from the persecution they faced in the East and to build a new life for them at the Great Salt Lake.
24th January 1848
Gold Discovered in California
James Marshall, a carpenter employed by John Sutter to build a mill at Sutter's Fort, discovered gold. Initially, news of the discovery was kept secret, but once it became known, people from the East flocked to California hoping to find gold and make their fortune. Those who arrived in 1849 became known as the 'Forty-niners'.
1850
Stagecoach
Wells Fargo established the stagecoach, which allowed travellers to pay to be transported by stagecoach.
17th September 1851
Fort Laramie Treaty
This treaty between the US Government and the Indian tribes redefined the Indian homelands. The treaty stated that these lands would belong to the Indians and that white settlers would not enter them. The Indians were to be given provisions for a period of ten years as compensation for the loss of land.
1854
Homesteaders
The first homesteaders began to move onto the Great Plains.
3rd April 1860
Pony Express founded
The Waddell and Russell freight company established the Pony Express. Relay stations were set up across north America and riders carried mail from one station to the next.
1861
Fort Wise Treaty
This treaty established the Sand Creek Reservation for the Cheyenne tribe.
22nd October 1861
Telegraph
The first telegraph message was sent across America
1862
Pacific Railways Act
This Act established two companies whose purpose was to construct a railway across America. The Union Pacific Railway was established in the East to build the railway to Missouri and then continue west. The Central Pacific Railway would build the railway from Sacramento and then continue east.
20th May 1862
The Homestead Act
This Act offered anyone prepared to settle in the West 160 acres of land for free provided they built a home and farmed the land for five years.
August 1862
Little Crow's War
This was a revolt by the Santee Sioux led by chief Little Crow in protest against the reservations. The Santee Sioux had moved onto a reservation that had poor land and their crops failed. Compensation payments that had been promised by the government had not been delivered and the tribe faced starvation. In August 1862, the Santee Sioux warriors attacked the government agency. They continued to attack white settlers and the US Army for three months before being defeated by the US Army.
1863
Cheyenne Uprising
The Cheyenne had agreed by the terms of the Fort Wise Treaty 1861 to move onto the Sand Creek Reservation. However, the land was very poor and survival for the Indians was virtually impossible. In 1863, faced with starvation, they began to attack wagon trains and steal food.
29th November 1864
Sand Creek Massacre
An armed force, led by Colonel Chivington, attacked Black Kettle's Cheyenne camp at Sand Creek. The motive for the attack was punishment for the raids on wagon trains. 163 Indians, including women and children, were killed and mutilated.
1866
The Long Drive
Texas cattlemen used cowboys to drive cattle to the northern states.
Summer 1867
Red Cloud's War
The Sioux chief, Red Cloud, was furious when white settlers began using the Bozeman Trail, which passed through the Sioux hunting grounds and began attacking travelers. Red Cloud was further angered when a line of forts was constructed to protect the travelers and increased the attacks. By spring of 1868, the government were forced to withdraw the army and abandon the forts.
Autumn 1867
Abilene founded
Joseph McCoy, a Chicago cattle dealer, founded the 'cow town' of Abilene.
1868
The Winter Campaign
Realizing that the Indians never fought during the winter months, the army decided to mount a Winter Campaign to try to catch them by surprise and force them into submission.
17th March 1868
Fort Laramie Treaty
This treaty defined the territory of the Sioux Indians. It gave them the Black Hills of Dakota and the Big Horn mountains.
10th May 1869
Completion of the Railway
The transcontinental railway was completed. A ceremony, known as the 'Golden Spike Ceremony' because a golden spike was used to join the East and West railways, was held at Promontory Point in Utah.
April 1871
Wild Bill Hickok
Wild Bill Hickok (Buffalo Bill) was employed as Marshall of Abilene.
March 1873
Timber CultureAct
This Act was an extension to the Homestead Act, offering 160 acres of land to any settler for free, provided that at least 40 acres was planted with trees.
June 1874
Gold in the Black Hills
Gold was discovered in the Black Hills of Dakota.
1874
Barbed wire invented
F. Glidden invented barbed wire. This invention meant that large areas of land could be fenced relatively cheaply.
24th June 1876
Battle of the Little Bighorn
The army decided to attack the Indians camped in the valley of the Little Bighorn. The attack was to be made from three sides. General George Armstrong Custer who led one of the attacking forces decided to attack without waiting for the other two forces to arrive. Custer split his force into three and advanced on the Indians. At some point, Custer's group were attacked. Custer and all his men were killed.
3rd March 1877
Desert Land Act
This Act allowed farmers to buy 640 acres of land at a cheap price in areas where there was little rainfall and irrigation schemes were needed to farm the land.
1881
Billy the Kid Shot
The notorious outlaw, Billy the Kid, was shot by lawman, Pat Garratt
February 1887
General Allotments Act (Dawes Act)
This Act split up most of the remaining Indian land into 160-acre plots. Some of the plots were given to Indians, but most of the land was allocated to white settlers.
29th December 1890
Wounded Knee Massacre
A group of soldiers opened fire on a group of Sioux at the Pine Ridge reservation in Wounded Knee Creek, killing 153 Indian men, women and children.
1892
Johnson County War
The Johnson County War was a range war fought by rival ranchers over cattle and land. Cattle ranching had been firmly established in Johnson County since the 1870s and many ranch owners had become wealthy and influential.
During the 1880s, they wanted more land and tried to buy out small ranchers and farmers. Those ranchers and farmers who resisted were accused of cattle rustling and some were hanged.
In 1892, the Cattle Barons had hired a vigilante group to get rid of the 'rustlers'. The small ranchers and farmers formed their own army to counter the vigilante group. The army of ranchers and farmers managed to force the vigilante group back to their base and hold them under siege.
The situation was resolved by the intervention of the US cavalry to free the vigilantes.